⒈ Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson

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Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson

Maxwell helps you prioritize your life to make each Florence Kelleys Objectification Of Child Labor count toward fulfilling your goals. You might think that it is better when teachers assign you a topic. I expected a Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson of horrible 4 Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson singles, but this Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson sharp. This system Essay On The Yellow Wallpaper to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson its originators may not have set out with such intent. The most detailed economic Discrimination In The Great Gatsby Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson the region are of the Marquesado's ranching haciendas, which produced draft animals horses, mules, burros, and oxen and Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson and goats, for meat and wool.

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Transatlantic ties between a particular Spanish town, Brihuega , and Puebla demonstrate the close connection between the two settlements. The take-off for Puebla's manufacturing sector did not simply coincide with immigration from Brihuega but was crucial to "shaping and driving Puebla's economic development, especially in the manufacturing sector. Although obrajes in Brihuega were small-scale enterprises, quite a number of them in Puebla employed up to workers.

Supplies of wool, water for fulling mills, and labor free indigenous, incarcerated Indians, black slaves were available. Although much of Puebla's textile output was rough cloth, it also produced higher quality dyed cloth with cochineal from Oaxaca and indigo from Guatemala. In , Puebla became an intendancy as part of the new administrative structuring of the Bourbon Reforms. Mexico City dominated the Valley of Mexico, but the valley continued to have dense indigenous populations challenged by growing, increasingly dense Spanish settlement.

The Valley of Mexico had many former Indian city-states that became Indian towns in the colonial era. These towns continued to be ruled by indigenous elites under the Spanish crown, with an indigenous governor and a town councils. The capital was provisioned by the indigenous towns, and its labor was available for enterprises that ultimately created a colonial economy. The gradual drying up of the central lake system created more dry land for farming, but the sixteenth-century population declines allowed Spaniards to expand their acquisition of land. One region that retained strong Indian land holding was the southern fresh water area, with important suppliers of fresh produce to the capital. The area was characterized by intensely cultivated chinampas, man-made extensions of cultivable land into the lake system.

These chinampa towns retained a strong indigenous character, and Indians continued to hold the majority of that land, despite its closeness to the Spanish capital. A key example is Xochimilco. Texcoco in the pre-conquest period was one of the three members of the Aztec Triple Alliance and the cultural center of the empire. It fell on hard times in the colonial period as an economic backwater. Spaniards with any ambition or connections would be lured by the closeness of Mexico City, so that the Spanish presence was minimal and marginal.

Tlaxcala, the major ally of the Spanish against the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, also became something of a backwater, but like Puebla it did not come under the control of Spanish encomenderos. No elite Spaniards settled there, but like many other Indian towns in the Valley of Mexico, it had an assortment of small-scale merchants, artisans, farmers and ranchers, and textile workshops obrajes. Since portions of northern New Spain became part of the United States' Southwest region , there has been considerable scholarship on the Spanish borderlands in the north. The motor of the Spanish colonial economy was the extraction of silver.

The region farther north of the main mining zones attracted few Spanish settlers. Where there were settled indigenous populations , such as in the present-day state of New Mexico and in coastal regions of Baja and Alta California , indigenous culture retained considerable integrity. The region did not have indigenous populations that practiced subsistence agriculture. From diverse cultural backgrounds and with no sustaining indigenous communities, these indios were quickly hispanized, but largely remained at the bottom of the economic hierarchy.

Land owners lent workers money, which could be seen as a perpetual indebtedness, but it can be seen not as coercing Indians to stay but a way estate owners sweetened their terms of employment, beyond their basic wage labor. However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. As with hacendados, renters produced for the commercial market. Many renters retained ties to the estates, diversifying their household's sources of income and level of economic security. Areas of northern Mexico were incorporated into the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, following Texas independence and the Mexican—American War —48 and generally known as the "Spanish Borderlands. The Presidios forts , pueblos civilian towns and the misiones missions were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial holdings in these territories.

The town of Albuquerque present day Albuquerque, New Mexico was founded in From , Jesuits established eighteen missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula. Between and several missions were founded in Trinidad , but only four survived as Amerindian villages throughout the 18th century. In , explorers and missionaries visited the interior of Texas and came upon a river and Amerindian settlement on 13 June, the feast day of St. Anthony , and named the location and river San Antonio in his honor.

Accordingly, he resigned as governor in and left New Mexico, having spent much of his personal wealth on the enterprise. In , Pedro de Peralta , a later governor of the Province of New Mexico , established the settlement of Santa Fe near the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range. Missions were established to convert the locals, and manage the agricultural industry. The territory's indigenous population resented the Spanish prohibition of their traditional religion, and the encomienda system of forced labor. After the return of the Spanish in , the final resolution included a marked reduction of Spanish efforts to eradicate native culture and religion, the issuing of substantial communal land grants to each Pueblo, and a public defender of their rights and for their legal cases in Spanish courts.

In the Province came under the new Provincias Internas jurisdiction. In the late 18th century the Spanish land grant encouraged the settlement by individuals of large land parcels outside Mission and Pueblo boundaries, many of which became ranchos. Not until the eighteenth century was California of much interest to the Spanish crown, since it had no known rich mineral deposits or indigenous populations sufficiently organized to render tribute and do labor for Spaniards.

The discovery of huge deposits of gold in the Sierra Nevada foothills did not come until after the U. By the middle of the s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja lower California peninsula. The method used to "occupy and fortify" was the established Spanish colonial system: missions misiones , between and twenty-one missions were established aimed at converting the Native Californians to Christianity, forts presidios , four total to protect the missionaries, and secular municipalities pueblos , three total.

As a result, the colonial population of California remained small, widely scattered and near the coast. In , the north-western frontier areas came under the administration of the new 'Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces of the North' Provincias Internas , designed to streamline administration and invigorate growth. The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in ; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California. Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos. The Spanish system of land grants was not very successful, however, because the grants were merely royal concessions—not actual land ownership.

Under later Mexican rule, land grants conveyed ownership, and were more successful at promoting settlement. Rancho activities centered on cattle-raising; many grantees emulated the Dons of Spain , with cattle, horses and sheep the source of wealth. Native-born descendants of the resident Spanish-heritage rancho grantees, soldiers, servants, merchants, craftsmen and others became the Californios. Many of the less-affluent men took native wives, and many daughters married later English, French and American settlers. After the Mexican War of Independence and subsequent secularization "disestablishment" of the missions , Mexican land grant transactions increased the spread of the rancho system.

The land grants and ranchos established mapping and land-ownership patterns that are still recognizable in present-day California and New Mexico. The villa of Campeche was the peninsula's port, the key gateway for the whole region. A merchant group developed and expanded dramatically as trade flourished during the seventeenth century. Blacks were an important component of Yucatecan society. The Maya community, the cah , was the means by which indigenous cultural integrity was maintained. In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods.

Perhaps because the peninsula was uniform in its ecosystem local niche production did not develop. Access to water was a limiting factor on agriculture, with the limestone escarpment giving way in water filled sinkholes locally called cenotes , but rivers and streams were generally absent on the peninsula. Individuals had rights to land so long as they cleared and tilled them and when the soil was exhausted, they repeated the process. Collective labor cultivated the confraternities' lands, which included raising the traditional maize, beans, and cotton.

But confraternities also later pursued cattle ranching, as well as mule and horse breeding, depending on the local situation. In —17 viceroy of New Spain organized a sufficient ships to expel the foreigners, where the crown subsequently built a fortress at Isla del Carmen. In the nineteenth century, the enclave supplied guns to the rebellious Maya in the Caste War of Yucatan. Since Oaxaca was lacking in mineral deposits and it had an abundant sedentary indigenous population, its development was notable for the lack of European or mixed-race population, lack of large-scale Spanish haciendas, and the survival of indigenous communities.

These communities retained their land, indigenous languages, and distinct ethnic identities. Antequera now Oaxaca City was a Spanish settlement founded in , but the rest of Oaxaca consisted of indigenous towns. Despite its remoteness from Mexico City, "throughout the colonial era, Oaxaca was one of Mexico's most prosperous provinces. The most important commodity for Oaxaca was cochineal red dye. Cochineal's commodity chain is an interesting one, with indigenous peasants in the remote areas of Oaxaca ultimately linked to Amsterdam and London commodity exchanges and the European production of luxury cloth.

The rich, color-fast red dye produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti. Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver. Although it could be produced elsewhere in central and southern Mexico, its main region of production was Oaxaca. For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them.

Although the repartimiento has historically been seen as an imposition on the indigenous, forcing them into economic relations they would rather have avoided and maintained by force, [] recent work on eighteenth-century Oaxaca analyzes the nexus of crown officials the alcaldes mayores and Spanish merchants, and indigenous via the repartimiento. Indigenous elites were an integral part of the repartimiento, often being recipients of large extensions of credit. As authority figures in their community, they were in a good position to collect on the debt, the most risky part of the business from the Spanish point of view. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec region of Oaxaca was important for its short transit between the Gulf Coast and the Pacific, facilitating both overland and sea trade.

The province of Tehuantepec was the Pacific side of the isthmus and the headwaters of the Coatzacoalcos River. Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century. Over the long run, ranching and commerce were the most important economic activities, with the settlement of Tehuantepec becoming the hub. The second period of approximately a century — saw the decline of the indigenous entailed estate cacicazgo and indigenous political power and development of the colonial economy and imposition of Spanish political and religious structures.

The final period is the maturation of these structures — The rebellion can be a dividing line between the two later periods. The Villa of Tehuantepec , the largest settlement on the isthmus, was an important prehispanic Zapotec trade and religious center, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Aztecs. The Marquesado continued to have major private holdings in the province. The Villa of Tehuantepec became a center of Spanish and mixed-race settlement, crown administration, and trade. However important the Marquesado and the Dominican enterprises were, there were also other economic players in the region, including individual Spaniards as well as existing indigenous communities.

Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period — Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor. The most detailed economic records for the region are of the Marquesado's ranching haciendas, which produced draft animals horses, mules, burros, and oxen and sheep and goats, for meat and wool.

Cattle ranching for meat, tallow, and leather were also important. Tallow for candles used in churches and residences and leather used in a variety of ways saddles, other tack, boots, furniture, machinery were significant items in the larger colonial economy, finding markets well beyond Tehuantepec. Since the Marquesado operated as an integrated enterprise, draft animals were used in other holdings for transport, agriculture, and mining in Oaxaca, Morelos, Toluca, and Mexico City as well as sold.

Raised in Tehuantepec, the animals were driven to other Marquesado holdings for use and distribution. Although colonial population decline affected the indigenous in Tehuantepec, their communities remained important in the colonial era and remain distinctly Indian to the current era. There were differences in the three distinct linguistic and ethnic groups in colonial Tehuantepec, the Zapotec , the Zoque , and the Huave. The Zapotecs concluded an alliance with the Spaniards at contact, and they had already expanded their territory into Zoque and Huave regions.

Under Spanish rule, the Zapotecs not only survived, but flourished, unlike the other two. They continued to pursue agriculture, some of it irrigated, which was not disrupted by the growing ranching economy. Generally Zapotec elites protected their communities from Spanish incursions and community cohesion remained strong as shown in members' performance of regular community service for social ends. Zapotec elites engaged in the market economy early on, which undermined to an extent the bonds between commoners and elites who colluded with the Spanish. In contrast to the Zapotecs, the Zoque generally declined as a group during the ranching boom, with interloping animals eating their maize crops.

Zoque response was to take up being vaqueros themselves. They had access to the trade to Guatemala. Of the three indigenous groups, the Huave were the most isolated from the Spanish ranching economy and labor demands. They traded dried shrimp and fish, as well as purple dye from shells to Oaxaca, likely acquiring foodstuffs that they were unable to cultivate themselves. Not well documented is the number of African slaves and their descendants, who were artisans in urban areas and did hard manual labor in rural areas. In general, Tehuantepec was not a site of major historical events, but in —61, there was a significant rebellion stemming from increased repartimiento Spanish demands.

With the growth of a sufficient Spanish population and the crown's desire to better govern the area, it established the Captaincy General of Guatemala , which had primary jurisdiction over what are now Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and Costa Rica. The region was diverse, and outlying provinces were resentful for elites in capital of Antigua Guatemala , destroyed by an earthquake in There was a high court Audiencia in the Kingdom of Guatemala. Given the region's distance from major centers of power in New Spain and Spain itself, local strongmen in the early were only nominally subject to royal authority. The indigenous population was very large in comparison to the Spanish, and there were relatively few Africans.

Spaniards continued to employ forced labor in the region starting with the conquest era and exact tribute from the indigenous. Cacao had been cultivated in the prehispanic period. Orchards of cacao trees, which took a number of years to come to maturity and produce fruit. Cacao boomed in the late sixteenth century, and then was displaced by indigo as the most important export product. Indigo, like cacao, was native to the region, and the indigenous peoples gathered wild indigo, used for dying cloth and as a trade good. After the arrival of the Spanish, they domesticated indigo and created plantations for its cultivation in Yucatan, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

The indigo industry thrived, since there was high demand in Europe for a high quality, color-fast blue dye. It was a dangerous work environment, with toxins present in the indigo plants that sickened and sometimes killed workers. It was profitable, especially following the Bourbon Reforms , which allowed trade within the Spanish empire. In the late eighteenth century, indigo growers organized in a trade organization, the Consulado de Comercio. An American-born Spanish elite criollos accumulated land and built fortunes on wheat, sugar, and cattle, all of which were consumed within the region. Spanish settlers brought to the American continent smallpox , measles , typhoid fever , and other infectious diseases.

Most of the Spanish settlers had developed an immunity to these diseases from childhood, but the indigenous peoples lacked the needed antibodies since these diseases were totally alien to the native population at the time. There were at least three separate, major epidemics that decimated the population: smallpox to , measles to and typhus to In the course of the 16th century, the native population in Mexico went from an estimated pre-Columbian population of 8 to 20 million to less than two million. Therefore, at the start of the 17th century, continental New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields. These diseases would not affect the Philippines in the same way because the diseases were already present in the country; Pre-Hispanic Filipinos had contact with other foreign nationalities before the arrival of the Spaniards.

While different intendencies would perform censuses to get a detailed insight in regards to its inhabitants namely occupation, number of persons per household, ethnicity etc. The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name. Most of the census' original datasets have reportedly been lost; thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works, such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.

Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,, to 6,, [] [] more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in was closer to 5 or 5. The authors assert that rather than whites and Mestizos having higher birthrates, the reason for the indigenous population's numbers decreasing lies on them suffering of higher mortality rates, due to living in remote locations rather than in cities and towns founded by the Spanish colonists or being at war with them. It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.

Once New Spain achieved its independence, the legal basis of the Colonial caste system was abolished and mentions of a person's caste in official documents were also abandoned, which led to the exclusion of racial classification in the censuses to come and difficulted to keep track of the demographic development of each ethnicity that lived in the country. More than a century would pass for Mexico to conduct a new census on which a person's race was taken into account, in , [] but even then, due to it showing huge inconsistencies regarding other official registers as well as its historic context, modern investigators have deemed it inaccurate.

Some of the most important early buildings in New Spain were churches and other religious architecture. Civil architecture included the viceregal palace, now the National Palace, and the Mexico City town council cabildo , both located on the main square in the capital. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Viceroyalty of New Spain. Kingdom of the Spanish Empire — Flag of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Maximum extent of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with the addition of Louisiana — The areas in light green were territories claimed by Spain. Main article: Spanish Empire. Main article: History of Roman Catholicism in Mexico.

Main article: Spanish colonization of the Americas. Main article: History of the Philippines. Main articles: Spanish treasure fleet and Manila galleon. Main article: Economic history of Mexico. Main article: Bourbon Reforms. See also: Louisiana New Spain. See also: Royal Audiencia of Mexico. Main article: History of Mexico City. Main article: Captaincy General of Guatemala. Main articles: Mexican art and Mexican architecture. Philippines portal Mexico portal Spain portal History portal. For a complete chart, see Hamnett , p. Retrieved 8 July Austin: University of Texas Press Chicago: University of Chicago Press Chicago: University of Chicago Press , p. New York Ember; Melvin Ember; Ian A. Skoggard, eds. Philippines: Google map of Paco district of Manila, Philippines.

Archived from the original on 7 May Central Milton Keynes: Author House The Philippine islands, — : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Cleveland, Ohio.

Stanford, Calif. ISBN Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 24 June Prentice Hall , London: Athlone Revised edition. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Gainesville: University of Florida Press Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p. Chicago: University of Chicago Press , pp. Prentice Hall , pp. Science Magazine. The Manila Bulletin Online. Archived from the original on 15 October Journal of Asian American Studies.

S2CID Page ; Citation 'According to Ricardo Pinzon, these two Filipino soldiers—Francisco Mongoy and Isidoro Montes de Oca—were so distinguished in battle that they are regarded as folk heroes in Mexico. General Vicente Guerrero later became the first president of Mexico of African descent. Struggle for Freedom Edition. Mexico: Pearson Education. This is the definitive study of the tobacco monopoly. VIII , Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Berkeley: University of California Press New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 24 August London: Scarecrow Press, Retrieved on 25 July Departamento de la Estadistica Nacional. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Mexico Racista. Penguin Random house Grupo Editorial Mexico.

Retrieved 23 February Altman, Ida The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall. Bannon, John Francis If we continue to destroy the region's forests, we may also annihilate the wildlife that lives there. New York: Garland, The protagonist is an outcast of this world and usually the only one able to see the problems inherent in it. Additionally, it heavily relies on feminism and religious fundamentalism in achieving the dystopian atmosphere. Information, independent thought, and freedom are restricted. Dystopias, through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, make a criticism about a current trend, societal norm, or political system.

Write a brief paragraph comparing and contrasting utopia and dystopia. Citizens are dehumanized. How are the members of this society being oppressed? What kind of control is used to keep the members of this society oppressed? This presentation chronicles the development of dystopian literature and describes some of its main characteristics. Feb 4, - Curriculum and Content for Teaching Dystopia. Both utopias and dystopias share characteristics of science fiction and fantasy, and both are usually set in a future in which technology has been used to create perfect living conditions. Below are files for each of the units. Students should be familiar with the basic definition and characteristics of dystopian literature.

Use strong, concrete details in your description of the example and interpretation. If you are considering adding or expanding a unit on utopian and dystopian literature you simply must check out this fabulous resource. Aug 4, - Dystopian literature is one of the most popular genres in YA fiction today, with tons of great books and movies to choose from. Identify the basic characteristics that each of the following species has in common. In Fahrenheit , the Ministry teaches that certain truths from the past are lies and censors public information. Students should read the characteristics of a dystopian world in science fiction and the guidelines for annotating the text as they read the book.

There is much more to a dystopian story than just that: not every dystopian piece of writing needs to have electronic surveillance as a theme and a terrible world is a broad term. Each faction represents an admirable human quality and the people of each faction must devote their lives to that quality. Pure utopias are rare in modern fiction, except as a Shangri-la or Brigadoon sought by characters message. Briefly review the Dystopias: Definition and Characteristics handout, or the characteristics that you have presented in previous sessions. Completed assignments must be uploaded to Turnitin docs or shared with mkudla emufsd.

Dystopian Literature between anti-utopia and dystopia. Dystopia, which is the direct opposite of utopia, is a term used to describe a utopian society in which things have gone wrong. Part one of my dystopian world building worksheet— with an introduction to the concept of world building — is here. It is important to note that science fiction has a relationship with the principles of science. Citizens are under constant surveillance. I understand it, I can do it, and I can comfortably explain it to another learner. This lesson explores how The Giver addresses issues of personal identity, memory, and the value of reading and education, as well as other famous classics in this genre and books that students may have read on their own.

What would happen to these things in a dystopian novel? In this informational text, Shelby Ostergaard discusses the characteristics of dystopian fiction and how the genre comments on society. Roth has created a dystopian society made up of factions: Abnegate, Amity, Candor, Dauntless and Erudite. You may wonder how dystopian literature is different from fairy tales or horror stories. Once done reading, look at the words you marked. After discussing what they know about the year , students read the voiceover text from the "" commercial and share their reactions to the passage.

What does it mean that a work belongs to a particular species? Works belonging to a particular genre have certain characteristics. Luckily, you've come to the right place! This lesson will explore Elements and Characteristics of Short Stories Short stories tend to be less complex than novels. Identify the three you chose in the left column. Imagined Universe: I imagined it looked like what an area of factories looked like with jail members walking around it.

The dystopian stories are often stories about survival, their primary theme is oppression and rebellion. Anti-utopia Dystopias, through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, make a criticism about a current trend, societal norm, or political system. Literary genres matching worksheet Match each species to its purpose. Is this story an example of utopian or dystopian fiction? Cite specific characteristics of the genre within your response.

I will pass out the Dystopias: Definitions and Characteristics sheet, which can be found by searching for it online. See more ideas about teaching, lesson plans, dystopia. Instruction Design. How To Make Essay Longer. How To Title An Essay. How to Write a Word Essay. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. You'll get weekly tips and tricks for improving your own writing and for achieving academic success through your writing. We are U. This is all that we do. Register Login. Paper Due? That's Our Job! Learn More. Why suffer? Click here to learn more. Was this helpful?

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Citizens Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson under constant surveillance. But Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson life hangs in the balance. Indigo, like cacao, was native to the region, and the Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson peoples gathered wild indigo, used for dying cloth and as a trade good. Cacao and indigo Political Nonfiction Impact On The Great Gatsby also important exports for the New Spain, but was Annotated Bibliography: The Lottery By Shirley Jackson through rather the vice royalties rather than contact with European countries due to piracy, and smuggling.

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